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UST Faculty of Medicine & Surgery Department of Anatomy

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THE BEGINNING OF THE DEPARTMENT AND THE SPANISH REGIME

 

     Incontestably the beginnings of the Department of Anatomy and of the Faculty of Medicine itself can be pinpointed to the latter part of the Spanish regime in our country. Although the Royal and Pontificial University of Santo itself was founded on April 28, 1611, yet the initial efforts to establish such a Faculty of Medicine was not exerted until years later and the approval for it by Royal decree was successfully secured only on Nov 22, 1682. Still, after this date, a full one hundred and eighty nine years (189) paseed by before the 1st medical school in the Philippines was formally opened on May 28, 1871 by decree of the “Superior Gobierno de Filipinas” during the Rectorship of Rev. Father Domingo Teserra , O.P. , the 81st Rector of the University and during the Governor-generalship of Carlos de la Torre. It was opened as the “Facultad de Medicina y Farmacia” or as the real Collegio de Medicina y Farmacia de San Jose de Filipinas”, combined with Pharmacy, were presently it is separated. What prompted them to found the two faculties as one. Obviously it was a necessity , since technical and financial difficulties had obstructed the realization of thr Dominican Father’s dream to fill up this void in the education of our people in those times. From a historical perspective we note that the emergence of the Faculty of Medicine itself and a full 350 years after the discovery of our shores by Ferdinand Magellan , Medicine was separated from Pharmacy only in 1900 (April 17)

     Since the first courses for the new medical school had to be set, this necessarily involved General Anatomy, Descriptive anatomy and Histology which are subjects belonging to the Anatomy Department, and therefore brings to the forefront the fact that our Department had to be the 1st Department to be organized, and maybe considered a full year older than the other Departments, particularly Clinical. We may say thus that the Anatomy Department was “ipso facto” the “premier “ Department, and truly 100 years old by 1971. The establishment of a “Salad de Diseccion” at the San Juan De Dios Hospital launched the department into the educative stream. A “Dissection Exercise in Anatomy” was introduced as early as 1871, but we have no records as to the actual numbers of cadavers utilized for this purpose. Certainly , the use of human cadavers for such dissections in the study of the structure of the human body must have been introduced quite early, although we cannot alleged likewise for the use of human brains or spinal cord specimens in Neuro-anatomy for that matter.

     It is curious to note that at this particular time (1871) as the Department of Anatomy started to admit its first batch of medical students, in the whole Philippine archipelago there were only twelve doctors practicing the science and art of Medicine and Surgery ,and these were those who belonged to the affluent class of our society and had acquired their training in Europe. Of course, there were a lot of “herbolarios” and pseudo-practicantes known as “mediquilles” in the field who were given official sanction to practice Medicine by then Gov. Gen. Francisco Alcala de la Torre by the Decree of July 21,1843. We can thus imagine that our country then was in their need of “physician-surgeons” Even if the population at that time was not too plentiful or as “explosive” as is presently obtaining. During that era ,with a population of five and a half million, the proportion was one doctor  for every half-million inhabitants. Today (1970) the proportion is very much improved: one doctor for every 22,000 Filipinos of 37,000,000 population (a crude estimate) broken down thus:

 

     M.D. in cities (Q.C. , Manila, Pasay, Caloocan,

                 San Juan and Mandaluyong) ……….. 5,194 (38%)

     M.D. in cities and Capitals excluding Manila etc. and suburbs 3,615 (27%)

     M.D. in all cities and Capital …………….. 8,809 (65%)

     M.D. outside of cities………………………4,793 (35%)

     Grand total  ………………………………... 13,602

 

     The 1st group of medical enrollees into our Department then were nine in number,

and this same group eventually formed the 1st medical graduates ever trained by U.S.T who on Mar.10, 1877 (Feast of St. Joseph) were each awarded the title of “Licenciado en Medicina”, thus:

1. Jose Lozada y Aguillera of Binondo, Manila (Sobresaliente)

2. Felipe Zamora y Cui-Sumbing of Capiz, Capiz (Sobresaliente)

3. Joaquin Battle y Hernandez of Motrel, Granada, Spain (Notable)

4. Narciso de san Juan Agustin y Lacsamana of Cavite, Cavite (Notable)

5. Hipolito Fernandez y Garcia of Cadiz, Cadiz, Spain (Sobresaliente)

6. Jose Diego panis y Manio of Calumpit, Bulacan

7.Nicanor Padilla y Escobar of Lingayen, Pangasinan (Notable)

8. Pedro Robledo y Gonzales of Arreba, Burgos, Spain

9. Enrique Lopez de Seneca del Rivero Capiz (Sobresaliente)

 

From this list we can observe that all were males: three came from Spain and six were native Filipinos of whom to came from Capiz, one from manila ,one from Cavite ,one from Bulacan and one from Pangasinan. The matriculation fee of the above 1st group of students was only P30 payable in two installments. The “Medicine Souvenir of 1958” mentions on page 5, 3rd paragraph, that the total enrollment that 1st year the College of Medicine opened consisted of only five students.”, but my research into records of the Archives proves that there were actually nine instead of five as alleged.

 

     From available records we find that all these students were under the care of Sr. Don Rafael Ginard who acted as Professor-in-charge, and since he was the 1st medical faculty member therefore ha can be considered as the 1st Head of the Department of Anatomy since then had assumed the Deanship. Thus ,since the foundation of the Faculty (1871) up to the present school    year (1970) a span of a full hundred years, the Deanship was monopolized by the Head of the Department of Anatomy for 67 years which is actually two-thirds of the whole time while undoubtedly is an enviable record for any Department.

 

Dr. Ginard was assisted by Dr. Mariano Martin and so they were the only members of the Department of Anatomy from 1871 to 1886 ( a period of 16 years) both handling not alone subjects an Anatomy but as well as Physiology. Their salary was 5000 pesetas per annum. Dr. Martin Latter on became Dean himself in 1887 and on March 23 of that year he spearheaded the establishment of the “Colegio de San Jose “building and not at the San Juan de Dios Hospital Conference Hall as mentioned on page 21 of the 1958 Medicine Souvenir Book, since the San Lazaro Hospital was opened for used as institution for clinical training only in 1875  there definitely was so called “Amphiteatro de Diseccion y Autopsia” where dissections were held from 6:30 to 7:30 a.m. which was followed by regular lectures delivered by Sr. Rafael Ginard on Anatomy and Histology at 9 to 10 a.m. at the lecture of the “El Leal” a hotel rented by the University for use of the Medical school which was located at No. 239 Calle Real , Intramurous.(Walled City of Manila). Records also show that the Spanish language was the medium of instruction during that regime and even up to the early 1920’s, and that the subject matters were Spanish translation of famous French textbooks , the five year course with a 1 year preparatory itself patterned after those of leading European Medical School, particularly  French and Spanish. The Anatomy courses dealt purely on the morphological as then practiced in Europe. The separation of Morphology from Physiology having occurred after the death of Johannes Moeller in 1858 ,where for some 300 years before this strucrure and function was inseparable. In our library we have presently extant original copies of those excellent French texts like the “Traite Complet de L’anatomie de L’homme”. By Bourgery and Claude Bernard ( edition of 1867-1871) and their translated editions.

 

But Anatomy at that time was not solely a subject confined to the 1st year medical curriculum as is now the standard practice. It was a subject taught in the 2nd year of Medicine as well, which involved the study of the structure of the internal organs, the nervous system (actually the beginnings of Neuro-anatomy) , the blood vascular system and the special organs.

 

It is curious to note that although the faculty pf Medicine was thus formally opened only in 1871, yet the UST Rector Magnificus was by virtue of the powers vested in his office empowered to grant the titles of “Bachiller en Medicina” and even the “Doctorado  en Medicina”, much earlier than the aforementioned date. Thus almost faded documents reveal that in 1861 ( a full 10 years before the founding of the College of Medicine), Mariano Martin ,later to become the Head of the Department and Dean of the Faculty, was granted the degree of “Doctor en Medicina y Cirujia”. That in 1862, Quentin Maynet y Rives” was granted the “Licenciado en Medicina”. And in 1871, during the very year of foundation, Sr. Dn. Rafael Ginard himself , the 1st Dean and head of the Department of Anatomy,was granted the title of “Licenciado en Medicina”., together with Miguel Pina y Castillen who in turn received the title of “Doctor en Medicina y Cirujia”. In 1874, a Miguel Sartren Pinol was awarded the title of “ Licenciado en Medicina y Cirujia “ and this was a full three years before the 1st batch of medical students graduated in 1877. Apparently they were granted their titles on the strength of affidavits and evidences alleging that they had undergone some form of medical instructions and training in some recognized European medical school before coming over to the Philippines. They were not simply “honoris causa” degrees. It appears also that the University was granting both licenciate and doctorate degrees during those earlier years up until 1917 when only the doctorate was conferred to those successfully hurdling the prescribed medical course of the UST faculty of Medicine. The difference between a “Licenciate” and a “Doctorate” degree maybe a most academic question, but from a recent decision rendered on the matter , the “doctorate” was considered as one granted the candidate after passing an oral examination (“Revalida”) and that for practical purposes both are synonymous .Incidentally in all these examination, be it written or oral, the Department of Anatomy professors have always participated as members of the different tribunals for a comprehensive evaluation of UST products.

 

     Also it is curious to note that students of those days did receive two or more medical titles, thus Jose Lozada y Aguillera and Felipe received their “Bachiller en Medicna” in 1875 and two years later (1877) were awarded the” Licenciado en Medicina”. Or take that case of Tomas Alcantara y Garchitorena who is listed as having received the “Licenciado en Medicina” in 1881 and two years later (1883) was awarded the title of “Doctor en Medicina y Cirujia”. But there was a time during the Spanish regime when the King centralized the granting of the Doctorate degree only to the University of Madrid.

 

     During the 2nd year of existence of the Faculty of Medicine (1872) seven new students were admitted, among them a Manuel Flores of Manila and a Jose Blanco of Bulacan. In the library I found copies of the 1872 edition of the “Tratado de Anatomia General”. Authored by Dr. Aureliano Maestro de san Juan which was used as text during that time. In 1873, four new admissions into that 1st year course is recorded of which Joae Aldeguer, Trinidad Pardo de Tavera y Garrido and Jose Luis de Castro were included. Two of them eventually became prominent figures in our country’s history, with Dr. Jose Luis de Castro (LIcenciado 1879) to shine forth as Dean of the Faculty of Medicine in 1907 while concurrently Head of the Department of Anatomy , occupying such dual positions for so many years (38 years), while Dr. Pardo de Tavera aside from becoming a member of the anatomy staff in 1894, and staying on for two years, carved his niche in the Philippines Hall of fame by his revolutionary activities of 1896-98 as member of the “Assamblea Consultativa” and member of the Malolos Congress of 1898 representing the province of Cebu. He went on to become the 1st Director of Diplomacy and later as Secretary of Foreign relations in the short-lived cabinet of the President Emilio Aguinaldo. Then during the American regime, he was a made as member of the board of health, during its Medical faculty then called “ The Philippine Medical School”. Then he became the director of the National Library and Museum in 1923. He is the only former staff member of the Department of Anatomy of UST who appears on a semi-postal Philippine postage stamp issued on April 1, 1949, honoring him as one of the pioneering Directors of the National Library. Although he was birthright a Spanis “Marquis” on his grandfather’s side, yet he preferred to remain Filipino , truly a patriot. Unfortunately he was prodded to recommend the transfer of control of the Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy from UST to the Colegio Medico Pharmaceutico of which he was then it’s President , a case which reached the Supreme Court of the United States of America , but justly decided in favor of the Dominicans. Just what were the motives and what vested interests pressured him into this sorry state of affairs are not recorded in history.

 

     In 1872, Rev. Father Pedro Paye , O.P . forwarded to Spanish crown a report stating that the newly born Medical Faculty needed dissecting rooms for the study of Anatomy, showing how concerned were the Dominican friars about the welfare of the department of anatomy . in the 1874 records we found registered a Vicente Cavanna as a 1st year medical student who later became a staff member of our department . Also mention is made of the “Tratado de Anatomia Descriptiva  con figures intercaladas en el texte” by Ph Sappey, translated by Rafael Martinez y Molina and Francisco Santana y Villanueva from the original French text , which obviously was used as official text for the course.

 

     The small number of students enrolling during those early years did not necessitate the maintenance of a large teaching force, nor until 1877 (6 years later) when the faculty was already financially stable, that the anatomy teaching staff had to be increased to three members  thus: Dr. Ginard , Dn. Jose Franco and Sr. Dn. Carlos Nalda is listed in some other sources as a Professor in Physiology as well. All of them bore the title of “ Professor de Anatomia”. This particular team was effective until 1885. Then from 1885 to 1886, the staff was composed of Dr. Jose Lacella and Dr. Antonio Baena together with Dn. Carlos Nalda. In 1877, the 1st major reorganization and reform of the original courses was undertaken, for which a Board was created with the Rector of UST as chairman together with the Rector’s of the Colegio de San Jose and Ateneo and Medical Faculty members . Dr. Ginard acted as Secretary of this Board. It was in 1877 also when the “Manual de Disseccion”. By Florencio de Castro y Latero was introduced into the course. In 1879(May), the “Escuela de Practicantes de Medicina” was opened. In the year 1882 to 1883, records show that the numbers of enrollment increased including that for Medicine. Thus, the 1st year medical enrollment was 40, of which 16 failed, while that of the 2nd year course there were 18 of which 4 failed. In the scholastic brochure of this same year, mention is formally made of Dr. Ginard as Dean of the Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, while at the same time teaching Anatomy to the 1st year medical students. “Tratado Elemental de Anatomia”. By A. Ja main and Van Kempen came into use during this particular period. As can be gathered from our research . Dr. Ginard was Department Head and Dean of the Medical Faculty from 1871 to 1886, under five rectors of the University, namely Rev. Fr. Teserra, Rev. Benito Corominas, Rev. Fr. Joaquin Fonseca, Rev. Fr. Pedro Perez and Rev. Fr. Gregorio Echevarria, all of the order of Preachers. In 1885, the University constructed an Amphiteater for Dissection and Depository for Cadavers at the San Juan de Dios Hospital for use of the Department of Anatomy.

 

     We find the first recorded inclusion of Embryology as a separate subject of the department of anatomy in the information bulletin of the school year 1886-1887, coinciding with the time Dr. Mariano Martin took over as dean of the Faculty and Head of the Department of Anatomy. He remained as Dean up to 1896 under 3 rectors. There was a complete change of staff members during this period with Dn. Antonio Trelles handling the 1st year subjects among which were “Histologia”.

 

     We find the first recorded inclusion of Embryology as a separate subject of the department of anatomy in the information bulletin of the school year 1886-1887, coinciding with the time Dr. Mariano Martin took over as dean of the Faculty and Head of the Department of Anatomy. He remained as Dean up to 1896 under 3 rectors. There was a complete change of staff members during this period with Dn. Antonio Trelles handling the 1st year subjects among which were “Histologia”. “Histoquimia Normal” and Anatomia Tecnica, while Dn. Antonio Jimenez Baena  took charge of Anatomia Descriptiva, “Embriologia”. and “Anatomia Tecnia”. For the department and Faculty. Textbooks then used included those authored by Dr. Aureliano Maestre de San Juan and Dr. Florencio de Castro y Latorre. Classes were held as usual at the Amphiteatere of the San Juan de Dios Hospital with 22 students in the 1st year. and 26 in the 2nd year.

 

THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD (1896 to 1898

     In the records of 1895-1898, corresponding to that tumultuous era when our 1ST Philippine Republic was established force of arms in open revolt (June 12, 1898) we find that the curriculum , being always above politics, went on and we find the following staff members listed thus: Dr. Rafael Lopez Jimenez, Dr. Francisco Farriels y Garrido and Ldo Dn. Lorenzo Aican together with Dr. Mariano Martin, Dr. Antonio Trelles and dr. Antonio Jimenez Baena . It appears that the classes were held thus: from 7 to 8 a.m. daily Dr. Rafael Lopez Jimenez lectured on Anatomy and Histology, at 9 to 10 a.m. daily Dr. Farriels y Garrido handled the 2nd year anatomy and embryology, and then from 10 to 11 a.m. daily Dr. Rafael Jimenez again handled the 1st year class in Anatomy.  The others in the staff acted either as assistant s or consultants. This time , Dr. J.A. Fort’s “Compendio de Anatomia Descriptiva”. ( University of Paris) translated into Spanish by Dr. Antonio de Serra y Pineda, was used together their with Sappey’s text. Dr. Farriels taught in the 2nd year Anatomy with Dr. Lorenzo Aican as substitute. In 1896-1897, the class schedule involved the 1st year Anatomy from 10 to 11 a.m. daily while 2nd year Anatomy and Embryology was held at 9 to 10 a.m. daily. The year 1897 to 1898 records show another line up of the Anatomy staff. Thus: Ldo. Dn Antonio Trelles as head of the Department while concurrently 3rd Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, with Dr. Trinidad Pardo de Tavera y Garrido handling the 2nd year Anatomy course. The other members were Dr. Mariano Martin, Dr. Rafael Lopez Jimenez, Dr. Francisco Farriels y Garrido and dr. Antonio Jimenez Baena. Dr. Antonio Trelles held on to the Headship and Deanship up to 1906 under the Rectorship of Rev. Fr. Santiago Paya and Rev.Fr. Raymundo Velazquez , O.P. Classes during Dr. Trelles term were held until thus: 1st year 10 to 11 a.m. Anatomy and Histology under Dr. Trelles, while 2nd year Anatomy and Embryology had their s daily under Dr. Pardo de Tavera (up to the time he resigned)

 

     Actually during the revolutionary period, there was lessened academic activity as certainly there was a decrease in the enrollment because of the troublous situation. In fact the classes were closed in 1898 to 1899 by order of the American Military Governor General, when the American’s came to our shores, during the Spanish American War. But in closing the Spanish regime, we must of necessity summarize the period by citing that fact that from 1871 to 1883 there were a total of 829 medical students enrolled during that span of 13 years of which only 638 passed and 119 failed, and that from 1883 to 1898, a period of 16 years, the enrollment reached a total of 7965 of which only 5222 passed and 2743 failed, proving that the medical curriculum of those days were rather strict, and that the UST faculty of Medicine as early as those years endeavored to give our people quality doctors. So by, 1898 the Faculty graduated 2 doctorates and 198 Licentiates., and all of them necessarily having passed our Department’s subject’s.

THE AMERICAN REGIME (1900 to 1935)

 

     The Spanish flag after 4 centuries was lowered on Aug. 13th, 1898 from the flagstaff of Fort Santiago while the American flag was raised in it’s stead, signifying the change of sovereignty over the Islands, with the Treaty of Paris formalizing the change–over. With peace restored , all University classes were re-opened on aug 1, 1899 but general Otis kept the Medical School closed. For even if the “academe” is really above politics, yet the change in government influences the curriculum. By 1900, Dr. Jose Luis de Castro and Dr. Dario del Valle with others pleaded with the Civil Commission for the re-opening of the College of Medicine , and by January 1901 General Mc Arthur , the father of General Douglas Mc Arthur of World War II fame, authorized the re-opening. The system of medical education naturally became Americanized and English became the mandatory medium of instruction. During the early years of this present century (1902 to 1903) we find Dr. Dario del Val mentioned as “Director-Anatomico “ with Dr. Mariano Martin as co-faculty member for Anatomy. Classes were held thus: 1st years Anatomy under Dr. Mariano Martin at 8 to 9 a.m. 2nd year Anatomy under Doctor De Castro with Dr. del Val handling this same class at 7 to 8 a.m. daily. The records of the Department of Surgery of this period reveals that Dr. Jose Luis de Castro (The Head of the Department of Anatomy and concurrent Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, also concurrent Administrator of the Colegio de San Jose, which College fairly supported the Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy financially, together with his fellow Anatomy staff members, Dr. Dario del Val and Dr. Augusto Anguita, assisted the surgical team of the Department of Surgery headed by the famous surgeon , Dr. Gregorio Singian and composed of Dr. Juan Minciano , the 1st and only Filipino lay regent in 100 years, Dr. Benito Valdez and Dr. Geminiano de Ocampo , in performing the 1st laparotomy operation in the history of the Philippines , on a 26 years old female Filipina suffering from an ovarian Cyst which when removed weighed 19 pounds. This fact proves that the Department of Anatomy professors were not mere basic teachers then but were also actual practitioners of the science and art of Medicine and Surgery. Dr. Luis de Castro became Dean in 1907 while head of the Department of Anatomy(the 4rth) and continued up to 1938, the longest term in the hundred years in history of the Faculty. He taught Neuro-anatomy aside from Descriptive Anatomy to the 1st year as well as the 2nd year students. He was Dean under the Rectorship of Rev. Fr. Jose Naval O.P., Rev. Fr Serapio Tamayo O.P. and Rev. Fr. Ascisclo Alfagem O.P.

 

     Extensive modernization of the Faculty of Medicine was instituted in 1907, the 3rd major change in the Faculty’s history, when the enrollment rose to 318 medical students (a peak at that time) necessitating the installation of new equipments and laboratory materials. By this time our country had two medical schools, the U.P. Medical School thru the efforts of a former Department of Anatomy member having been founded. At this time the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Santo Tomas was thirty five years old. It was at this particular time when the University began publishing the new famous “Information Bulletin”. Copies of which are found in the Registrar’s office which are collected materials made my work more facile. The records of 1907 to 1908 show that the 1st detailed descriptions of topics discussed during the 1st year Anatomy course together with the other courses were adequate. Previous to this , no such information were available in print. The Anatomia Descriptiva  of the 1st course has for its objective to know perfectly the form, structure and relationship of the organs and its integration within the admirable human machinery. The method employed to attain such an objective was thus: The students were shown the organization of the human body in general and then those were studied by system s going thru Osteology, Arthrology, Myology followed by Splanchnology, the Digestive, Respiratory, and Genite Urinary Systems. There were recitation classes held to check up on the ability of the students to assimilate and retain in memory those matters discussed previously. To complement the Descriptive Anatomy lectures, a Dissection course was likewise given. And in order that the students may become familiar with the structures assigned for that particular day, they were required to draw what they actually saw from the cadavers assigned to them and from models. So the practical component of instruction underscored the theoretical part. The students were required also to preserve dissected specimens under the guidance and inspection of three professors in charge of the section, much like our present procedure. As for Histology, they studied this subject from such fresh specimens available as well as from stained preparations. Drawings were required, checked and graded. Recitation for one hour in each session of three times a week, during which tissues were explained by means of charts, diagram and impromptu sketches for facilitating comprehension and retention. The Histology section then had only 25 microscopes and the student-faculty ratio was one professor per 25 students. The 2nd year Anatomy course involved for the first part the study of the heart, arterial and venous as well as the lymphatic systems in 152 or 154 lessons, while the 2nd part dealt with Angiology, the students were required to inject into the vessels such colored liquids and that during these dissections, the professors quizzed the students on the details of the organs exposed and parts dissected. The 2nd year Anatomy classes were divided into sections of 40 students each with 20 working on cadavers while other 20 making sketches of what has been exposed and dissected by his partner. Then on the next half hour period , they exchanged positions. The Anatomy staff at this time included: Dr. Mariano Martin  handling Anatomy with Dr. Manuel Guerrero for Histology together with Dr. Proceso Gabriel y Del Rosario ( father of the present Asst. Dean Dr. Gregorio Gabriel.) while Dr. Jose Luis de Castro handled the 2nd year Anatomy, Neuro-Anatomy and Splanchnology courses. Dissection were supervised by Dr. Augusto Anguita y Garrido together with Dr. Jose Vicencio del Rosario (an uncle of my father)     

Dr. Proceso Gabriel at the same time was teaching Pathological Anatomy. The 1907-1908 records reveal also the curious presence of three “preparadores” in the line up of the staff for the “Amphiteater for Autopsy and Dissection” thus: Lino del Rosario , Felix Salazar and Sixto Raisay. They were listed together with the Professors and probably were the equivalent of present day technicians who prepare the cadavers prior to the dissection sessions and assists during the actual demonstration. The 1908-1909 information bulletin contains a report to the Rector by Dr. Jose Luis de Castro, written in Spanish, concerning the44 cadavers then used by the first year medical students of that school year, specifying among others that there were 29 male and 15 female cadavers, which in effect was a rattle of 1 cadaver per 2 students. Our present ratio of one cadaver per 8 students. Appears to be inconvenient to say the least , but then the system of instruction involved the objectives and scopes have changed. Dr. Luis de Castro’s report even mentioned the kind and amount of preservatives used and other minor details which concerned the Department of Anatomy of his time. At that particular regime, they used only 10% formalin for preserving their specimens, where presently we are using a special embalming fluid with a formula thus:

 

          Ethyl Alcohol…………………….33.3%

          Glycerine………………………….4.2%

          Formalin…………………………...2.1%

          Phenol……………………………...6.7%

          Benzolidium Chloride……………...0.1%

          Water (to make up to)………………100.0%

 

     This improved formula was taken from suggestion was taken made by Woodburn, Russel and Carl A. Lawrence as it appeared in the 1952 Anat. Rec.V. 114 pages 507 to 510. Aside from this, we evolved a system of re-embalming ad-interm using the following formula, thus:

 

          Formalin …………………. 1000cc.

          Alcohol …………………... 1500cc.

          Glycerine ………………… 250cc.

 

     During the course of dissection, we presently used moistening fluid composed of Alcohol, Glycerine, and Formalin in equal parts. This is more sophisticated than the formula as mentioned in Dr. Luis de Castro’s report. But this was developed thru the years after much experimentation, seeing that the old formalin method produced leathery tissues which was quite unsatisfactory, plus the too rapid decay accompanying such procedure. Our present method preserves some degree of softness and delays putrefaction which to our way of thinking is much better.

 

     In 1909, Dr. Anguita was named Director of Dissection with Dr. Dario del Val y Macam and Dr. Jose Vivencio del Rosario as sub-directors. A dissection Hall measuring approximately 144 square meters was then constructed to accommodate some 90 students each time. It was equipped with seven dissection tables and four smaller ones which are Gross anatomy dissection hall of today which measures 938 square meters and houses some 50 especially designed steel dissection cabinets provided with lockers located at the 4th floor of the new Medicine Building built I 1952.

The Histology laboratory that time (1909) had four microtomes together with numerous slides and stains, but our present Histology section is better furnished with the latest equipment.

 

     In the information bulletin of 1908 to 1909 ( appendix 5. page 355) we find the proceedings of a conference held over the twins of Samar, wherein the leading discussants were Dr. Jose Luis de Castro and the Anatomy staff of his day. Dr. Mariano Martin, Dr. de Val, Dr. Manuel Guerrero together with members of the other Department. This was described in an article authored by Dr. Vicente Rosales , printed in the Santo Tomas Journal of Medicine, Vol. XXIV, No.5 pages 294-302. This clearly indicates that the Anatomy professors actually led the discussions and therefore alludes to the intellectual quality of the staff of that era.

 

     As the University celebrated its Tricentenary in 1911, the records show that the Medical Faculty had graduated 206 Licentiates and 13 doctorates from 1899 to 1911…all of them having passed the anatomy course. The 1915-1916 records reveal that the Department of Anatomy adopted for the first time the textbook of Dr. L. Testut entitled “ Tratado de Anatomia Humana” a Spanish translation made by J. Corominas and Antonio Riera Villaret. Testut”s “Compedio de Anatomia Descriptiva” was likewise used . For Histology , P. Sther’s “Textbook of Histology” was utilized together with a laboratory manual authored by the world-reknowned  Spanish Histologist and Nobel Prize winner , Dr. Ramon y Cajal. As guide for the dissections, they used the “Manual de Disseccion” by P. Ancel (French text) translated into Spanish by Dr. Gil Salter y Lavall. It is curious to note that several “Information Bulletin” spell this author as “Angel” while in my research I came across the book at the library and verified the spelling. In 1915-1916, the class hours for the first year was as follows: 7 to 8 a.m. Anatomy followed by Dissection at 8 to 9 a.m. and then by 9:30 to 11:30 a.m. Histology this was daily from Monday to Saturday except Thursday when it was a regular “Off Day”. For the 2nd year Anatomy 7 to 8 a.m. daily form Monday to Wednesday. During this school year 1915-1916, the UST College of Medicine was officially recognized by the Philippine government.

 

     In 1917, Dr. Ricardo Molina was appointed “Full Time” Professor of Anatomy, Histology, and Embryology while Dean de Castro handled Neuroanatomy. Dr. J.V. del Rosario assumed the professorship of Physical Diagnosis as well. The 1917-1918 class schedule was as follows: 7 to 9 a.m. Anatomy under Dr. del Val, Embryology under Dr. de Castro , then at 9:30 to 11:30, Histology under Dr. Proceso Gabriel , The 2nd year had Anatomy at 9 to 11 a.m. under Dr. Anguita and Dr. del Rosario. During period (1916-1917) one of the 1st year medical students cited for Excellence in Anatomy was a Pio Luaengco y Maninang , my own father, who graduated M.D. (merritissimus) on March 26, 1920. He was a favorite assistant of Dr. William Burke, the pioneer Cardiologist, and of Dr. Luis Guerrero, the re-knowned Clinician . He was invited by them to enter the medical education field as a specialty and become a member of the Anatomy staff, but he preferred to enter the Philippine Health Service which was very glamorous at that time, and in time he become Provincial Health officer in several provinces. When I graduated M.D. in 1949 and after receiving a gold medal award as “Outstanding Physician for the tear 1950”. He brought me to Dr. Luis Guerrero and obtained for me the recommendation which landed me into the Faculty as Staff member in the department of anatomy. In short the son had taken over where the father could have been and where a grand –uncle had left off. Further investigating, I found that the so called “Premios” for Excellence in Anatomy as well as for other subjects was actually being awarded for some time even before 1916 and after my father’s time thus:

YEAR             NAME OFAWARDEE         CATEGORY OF AWARD   

 

                                                              

1886-1887…. Sixto Francisco y Martin…. Descriptive Anatomy

1888-1889…. Antonio Garcia y Agoo …. Anatomy and Histology

1895- 1896.... Luis Guerrero y Alvarez .... Descriptive Anatomy

                                                                     Anatomia Tecnica

                                                                     Embryology

1901-1902 .... Miguel Velarde y Castaneda .... Descriptive Ana.

                        Salvador Franco ....................... Anatomia Tecnica

1911-1912 .... Basilio Valdez y Pica .......... 1st yr. Ana.and Histo.

                       Carlos Monserrat y Calve … 2nd yr. Anatomy

1912-1913 .... Cesar Reyes  Enriquez ........ 2nd yr. Anatomy

                       Agustin Liboro ..................... 2nd yr. Anatomy

                       Alberto Capona …………... 2nd yr. Anatomy

1913-1914 .... Antonio Hernandez y Totanez ... 1st yr. Anatomy

                        Santos Rivera y Tanhalin ..... Dissection 1st course

                        Domingo Tablan y Rodriguez ... Histology

1914-1915 .... Juan Tablante ........................... Histology

                       Jesus Garcia .............................. Anatomy 2nd year

                       Vitaliano Luna .......................... Dissection

1915-1916 .... Pio Lauangco y Maninang ........ 1st yr. Anatomy

                                                                            and Histology

1915-1916 .... Andres Baltazar y Domingo ..... Anatomy 1st yr.

                       Jose Ma. Romero y Aldeguer ....                   

                       Salvador Martinez .....................                    

                       Domingo Ponbella y Barrios ......                   

                       Miguel Castillo y Recto ..............                   

                       Carlos Ascusia y Abusan ............                   

1916- 1917 ... Felixberto Rustia y Sison ............ Ana. Dissection

                       Augusto Anguita y Cerecodo ......              

                       Jose Valero y Vergel de Dios ......              

                       Jose Chivi ....................................              

                       Pablo Hamey ............................... Histology

                      Jose Victoriano …………………. Histolgy

                      Pio Lauangco y Maninang ………. 2nd yr Anatomy

                      Marcelino Hallare ........................... Dissection

1917-1918 ... Cesar Ramos ................................... Anatomy

                      Vicente de la Serna ......................... Anatomy

                      Alfredo Chicote ............................... Anatomy

                      Fernando Duran ............................... Anatomy

                      Aurelio Cepon .................................. Histology

                      Adriano Cabrera ............................... Histology

1918-1919 ... Ramon Ricafort ................................ 1st yr Anatomy

                      Vicente de la Serna ………………... 2nd yr. Ana.

1910-1920 ... Antonio Radevan .............................. 1st yr. Ana.

                      Ignacio Garcia ……………………… 2nd yr Ana.

                      Edmundo Reyes y Garcia ................... Embryoloyg

1920-1921 ... Macario Galian ................................... 1st yr. Ana.

                      Antonio Lafuente ……………………. 1st yr Ana.

                      David Seran ………………………….. 1st yr.Ana.

                      Ramon Santos ………………………... 1st yr.Ana.

                      Pedro Limuanco ……………………… 1st yr. Ana.

                      Jesus Azcona ......................................... 2nd yr. Ana.

                      Jose Versoza .......................................... 2nd yr. Ana.

1921-1922 ...Virgilio Ramos y Reyes ......................... Histology &

                                                                                        Embryology

1922-1923 ... Proceso Arena ........................................ Anatomy &

                                                                                        Embryology

1922-1923 ... Casiano Madriguera ............................... Histology

1924-1925 ... Vicente de la Paz .................................... Anatomy &

                                                                                        Histology

1925-1926 ... No awards for anatomy, Possibly the awarding was

                      terminated this year.

 

     From the aforementioned list we discover that there were several awardees who eventually became professors in the different Departments of the faculty of Medicine of University of Santo Tomas thus: Basilio Valdez y Pica ( Surgery Dept.), Agustin Liboro ( Medicine Dept.), Edmundo Reyes y Luna (EENT Dept.) Virgilio Ramos y Reyes ( Surgery dept. and Dean of the Faculty), and Proceso Arenas ( Biochemistry Dept.) Also we note that there were certain years were no awards were given for Excellence in Anatomy 1886 to 1924, a total of 50 having been awarded for Anatomy.

 

     In 1918, Dr. Proceso Gabriel left the Department of Anatomy to assume the Headship of the Department of Hygiene and later to actuate as of the Faculty of Medicine itself for a short a while. Dr. Mariano Martin retired from the Department this same year after serving for 47 years. Dr. Benito Valdez , father of Major General Basillio Valdez, came in as new staff member for anatomy but in a short a while transferred to the sections of Therapeutics,Electrotheraphy and History of Medicine. In the 1917-1918 information bulletin mention is made of lectures delivered during the course thus: Embryology, 12 hours, Anatomy 110 hrs. of which 35 hours were dedicated to lectures on Osteology, 16 hours to Arthology, 20 hours to Myology and 27 hours to Splanchnology.

 

     In 1920-1921, the dissections started with the upper and lower extremities, then went on to the Head and Neck and then to the abdomen and Thorax. The official texts adopted were those of Cunninghams “ Textbook of Anatomy” and Herley’s “ Dissection Manual for Gross Anatomy”, while Jordan’s “ Textbooks of Histology” and Ferguson’s “Textbook of Histology” were adopted for Histology. Testut’s and Sappey’s were listed down as reference books. In 1922, Bailley and Miller’s “Textbook of Embryology” was adopted by the Department for use in the 1st year embryology classes. From 1918 to 1923 the records to explain this intriguing situation, but from old staff members, I gathered that Dr. Molina meanwhile took charge of running the Department, practically actuating as Head, though not officially designated as such. The classes at this time were as follows: 7 to 9 a.m. Anatomy and Dissection under Dr. Molina and assisted by Dr. Anguita and Del Val , Dr. Molina took charge of Embryology lectures. At 2 to 4 p.m. Dr. Molina took care of the Histology lectures. While Dr. de Castro took care of Neuro-Anatomy for the 2nd tear students at 4 to 6 p.m.

 

     In 1924-1925, Neuro-Anatomy was transferred to the 1st year medical curriculum where previously it was in the 2nd year. This was handled by Dr. De Castro himself even while actuating as Dean. It appears that Dr. de Castro’s specialty was Neuro-Anatomy. During this time, Gross Anatomy was removed as a subject from the 2nd year level medical course and concentrated into that of the 1st year. Also during this year, for the 1st time in the history of the University , a two year Pre-Medical course was opened as prerequisite for entering the medical course: where previously there was only a one year preparatory ( during the Spanish regime.) and then later the necessity to secure an A.B. Degree before entrance into the Medical School. The year 1925-1926 saw the adoption of Morris and Jackson’s “Textbook of Anatomy” as official text together with Cunningham’s and Heisler’s “ Practical Anatomy” as references. Villiger’s book became the official text of Neuro-Anatomy, while the Histology section stuck to Jordan’s “Textbook of Histology”. It was at this particular time that Dr. Ramon V. Eleazar was appointed instructor in Histology, Embryology, and Neuro-anatomy. Although for a short while before this he is recorded to have stayed in the Department of Bacteriology, Parasitology, and Preventive Medicine , yet he made his Professorship in Anatomy as his lifetime career until his death. He can therefore be considered the Anatomist of  his period.

 

     Although the courses in Anatomy were being given during the first and Second Years of the Medical Course since the founding of the Faculty of Medicine yet the Department itself was not so officially known as such, until the school year 1926-1927, 57 years later when Dr. Ricardo Molina assumed the Headship (the 5th) that the Anatomy set up was formally installed as a Department. Then the main building of the University at the present site (Sulucan) was completed in 1927, and the 1st and 2nd year medical classes were then transferred to this building. And due to the sudden increase in the enrollment in 1928, the services of Dr. Vicente Cavanna ( the same who had the distinction of being the 1st Prof. of Medical Pathology and taught Clinical Diagnosis and Practice) was recruited together with Dr. Telesforo J. Mendoza and Dr. Estelito Madrid . The “Quiltnes for Dissection” authored by Dr. Ricardo Molina came into popular use. This period also show the following roster of the Department thus: Dr. Ricardo Molina as Head of the Department, Dr. Augusto Anguita, Dr. Dario del Val, Dr. ramon V. Eleazar, Dr. Vicente Cavanna , Dr. Telesforo J. Mendoza and Dr. Estelito Madrid. In 1929 Dr. Mendoza and Dr. Madrid left the Faculty and for replacements Dr. Anatacio Godoy were appointed instructors in the Department of Anatomy. On Nov. 29,1929, the Anatomy building was blessed and inaugurated, and Anatomy classes were then held in that building. Dr. Mendoza served for a year as resident Physician of the Botocan Hydro-electric plant of  the Meralco, then returned to the Department in 1931. For a time he was connected also with the Department of Legal Medicine (3 years) In 1930-1931, Dr. Ricardo Molina and Dr. Godoy stepped out of the Department of Medicine in 1942. He died in 1944. He actually can be considered as the pioneer endocrinologist of the Philippines. Dr. Rodolfo Gonzales took over Dr. Godoy’s place in the Department but later also left to eventually become Chief of the section of Orthopedic Surgery of the Department of Surgery. But in 1931-1932, Dr. Jose Luis de Castro then the Dean of the Faculty again took over the Headship of the Department in an concurrent capacity. And by 1932, a fully 1 year after the foundation of the Faculty, the 1st batch of women 1st year medical students came in (49 of them) which formed the first women Doctors graduated by the University in 1937. During that time, the University adhered to the segregation of the sexes in education, hence this ladies were having classes separate from the male group. In the year 1933-1934, saw the debut of the ubiquitous Laboratory Manual authored by the whole Anatomy staff. In 1935, the Neuro-anatomy Laboratory Manual by Dr. Telesforo J. Mendoza was published and became expanded into a “Notes” and “Manual” 5 years later. This was done in compliance with the desire of the Very Rev. Father Rector then to minimize the expenses of the students, so that the students need not purchase both books. Just the Manual would suffice for particular purposes, the “Notes” assuming the role of reference material.

 

THE COMMONWEALTH PERIOD (1935 to 1945)

 

     We assumed a semi-independent state when the Commonwealth was inaugurated in 1935 (Nov.15), the academe flowed on undisturbed by the changing political tide. In the 1936-1937 school year, the class schedule was as follows:

 

1st SEMESTER

 

7 to 9 a.m.     Anatomy (Monday to Saturday
9 to 11 a.m.   Histology alternate with Neuro-anatomy

 

2nd SEMESTER

 

7 to 9 a.m.     Anatomy (Monday to Saturday)

9 to 11 a.m.   Histology alternate with Embryology

                      (Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday)

 

     The texts for this year were Cunningham’s and Morris “Textbook of Anatomy”, Jordan’s “Textbook of Histology”, Ranson’s “Textbook of Neuro-Anatomy”, Bailley Miller’s “Textbook of Embryology” and an “Outline of Laboratory Work in Anatomy” by the Anatomy staff. In the school year 1937-1938. Dr. Gregorio Gabriel was appointed member of the Anatomy Staff, tw years after the death of his father (Dean Proceso Gabriel) and by 1959, some twenty years later, found himself the Head of the Department and still two years after this was promoted to the Assistant Deanship of the faculty itself. When Dr. Buenaventura  U.V. Actuaco (the present dean) went on Observation Tour of the medical Schools in the United States, Dr. Gabriel took over as acting Dean like his Father did before him. By 1937-1938, the grand old man of Anatomy , Dr. Jose Luis de Castro , the undisputed master of his time, standing like a mountain of a man in the Department’s history faded away.

 

    In 1939, Dr. Eleazar assumed the Headship of the Department of Anatomy (the 6th). The “Conpendium of Human Anatomy” by Drs. Eleazar and Santos first appeared in 1937 and was in popular use up to 1939. Lectures were then held at the “paranimfo” (Lecture Hall” at the Intramurous building of the University. Dr. Nora Diokno Casas became the first female faculty member of the Department of Anatomy when she was appointed in 1940, coming in together with Dr. Manuel de Veyra and Dr. Manuel Navarro. Dr. De Veyra soon left the Department to dedicate full time to Cardiovascular practice and became Director of his own hospital in Cebu City, while Dr. Navarro transferred to the Department of Biochemistry. In 1941, Dr. Felix Estrada was appointedmember of the Department of Anatomy when Dr. Hermogenes Santos and Dr. de Veyra stepped out, Dr. Santos transferred  to the Department oo Physiology and Pharmacology, then to the Department of  Medicine and eventually became in 1957 the Assistant Dean of the College of Medicine itself . For sometime too he actuated as Dean. Dr. Hermogenes Santos has the added distinction of not only having become Acting Dean of the Faculty like so many from the Department (Medicine) and the only former member of Anatomy Department thus far to have delivered a Luis Guerrero Lecture (the 36th of the series) in August 1955. In 1941, Dr. Estudita Remigio Ramos then with the Clinical Pathology staff, joined the Department of Anatomy, while Dr. Felix Estrada transferred to the Department of Pediatrics and became eventually its head. In 1941-1942 Frazer and Robin’s Manual of Practical Anatomy was introduced for Gross Anatomy, while Histology and Maximow and Bloom’s textbook.

 

WORLD WAR II AND THE JAPANESE OCCUPATION PERIOD ( 1942 to 1944 )

 

     The Second World War broke out on Dec. 8, 1941 and classes were immediately suspended, and remained closed for some months. But even while the whole world was in flames, the Medical School was re-opened during the Japanese Occupation with special classes organized by Dr. Gregorio Gabriel and Dr. Antonio Samia , both handling all the subjects of the Anatomy Department together with Dr. Eleazar, dr. Torres and Dr. Mendoza. Dr. Samia later transferred to the Department of Medicine and at one time became a President of the Philippine Medical Association. In 1944 ( September 21 ) the old Intramurous Medical Building was completely razed to the ground during one of the liberating battles and so classes were again suspended. Fortunately most of the equipment were saved thru the efforts of the good Father Jose Cuesta O.P. then regent of the College of Medicine, one of the most understanding Dominicans I have ever known.

 

 

LIBERATION AND THE POST WAR PERIOD ( 1944 to 1946 )

 

     After the liberation and with peace once again restored, the medical courses like the proverbial phoenix, again started a new at the Espana building and the post war years brought more marked changes to the faculty and particularly to the Department of Anatomy itself. We pinpoint the post-war era as starting on February 1946.

 

 

PERIOD OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES ( 1946 to the present )

 

     When the American “star and stripes” was hauled down finally and in its place our own country’s flag was heisted to proudly reign supreme over our own azure skies, we find that Dissections were done in a building close to the Espana Avenue. The Department than had 6 staff members. But in 1948, the Department transferred to the present High School Building beside the Dapitan street, staying there up to1951. In the Histology section in 1948, Bremer’s text was used, while Embryology used “Arey’s. Dr. Felicidad Castro became supervisor of the section in 1948 and held the post up to 1968, a period of 20 years. When the new Medicine building was completed in 1952 , the Department of Anatomy was again transferred and this time to its permanent home on the 3rd and 4th floors. Neuro-anatomy, Embryology, and Histology classrooms and laboratories occupied the 3rd floor while Gross Anatomy had its huge Dissection Hall with separate Ossarium at the 4th floor. Upon the demise of Dr. Ramon V. Eleazar in 1950, Dr. Felipe Torres took over as Head of the Department ( the 7th ) and held it up to 1959 when he retired at the age of 65, the compulsory retirement age. Dr. Torres was Head under two rectors: Rev. Fr. Angel de Blas O.P. and rev. Fr. Castanon O.P. In 1951-1952, we find the highest number of enrollment ever, into the 1st year medical curriculum as also the highest membership in the Anatomy staff. The present Chairman and myself were among those fortunate alumni of UST of post-war vintage who entered the Faculty of Medicine as Staff members at this particular time. The “Notes in Neuro-Anatomy” of Dr. Mendoza was adopted during this year as official textbook. Dr. Felicidad Castro’s “Fundamental’s of Histology” and a “Laboratory Handbook of Histology” were adopted for Histology in 1950. So too with Dr. Santos and Gabriel’s “Epitome of Anatomy” which in 1955-1956 became the “Digest of Anatomy” under the sole authorship of Dr. Gregorio Gabriel. By 1967 these excellent text went out of official use in favor of American text as dictated by the new curriculum. When Dr. Felipe Torres retired, he went to the Ocampo Nursing School and become the Head of its Anatomy Department and Dr. Gregorio Gabriel in 1958 became the 8th Head of the Department . In 1959, the Pre-Medical Course was made a 3 year course instead of two. And then in 1960 by virtue of the Medical act. of  1959, this Pre-Medical requirement became a 4 year course. 1958-1959 mark also the  time I came back after a leave of absence of some five years directing a Diocesan Hospital in the south returning to my old position in the Department of Anatomy. During this year, the “Essentials of Embryology” and an Embryology manual authored by Gr. Felipe Torres and Dr. Remigio Ramos appeared into the scene. Before this there was an impromptu mimeographed outline in Embryology by Dr. Bonifacio de Leon Jr. and Fr. F. Torres put  our in 1951 to 1954, but was not official. In 1961, Dr. Remigio Ramos authored the “Principles of Embryology” which was used as official text. Then in 1963, Dr. Telesforo Mendoza became the Head of the Department of Anatomy( the 9th ) and held this position up to 1965 when Dr. Hector de los Santos took over to become the 10th Head of the Department. It was in 1963-1964 when Neuro-anatomy became a 2nd year subject, and then was returned to the 1st year curriculum in 1966. In 1966-1967, Neuro-anatomy was taught to both the 1st and 2nd year medical students to make up for deficiency created by the rather abrupt changes in the current renovation of the curriculum. We can thus well imagine Neuro-anatomy as the “Wondering Dew” of the Department.

 

     During Dr. Hector de los Santos’ term, a new method of instruction with Correlation Lectures and Seminars was instituted, which became a distinctive departure from the traditional pattern. The Departmental activities became distinguished into that of “Administrative” and “Academic” entitles, with Committees created to facilitate the functioning of both this categories. A “Block System of Class Scheduling” was likewise launched and for the 1st time, the top position of the Department was changed to “Chairman” instead of the time honored “Head”. On Tuesdays and Saturdays, guest lecturers were invited to discuss correlative topics to the 1st year medical students thus:

 

Aug.16-20,1966 : Kinesiology – Dr. Assidao, Dr. Gisbert and Dr.  

                                                     Luis Martinez.

Aug. 23-27 : Reflexes – Dr. Gomez

Aug. 30, Sept.3 : Laboratory Methods as Aids for Clinical 

                            Diagnosis : Dr. Barrios, Dr. Gutierrez

                                               and Dr. Cuisia

Sept. 13-Sept 17 : Reproduction , Fertility and Birth Control

                              Dr. Rosales

Sept. 20-24 : Hematological Diseases – Dr. Gamez

Oct. 4-8 : Hematology – Dr. H. Purruganan , Dr. Rigor, and

                                        Dr. Tanseco Narciso

Oct. 11-15 : Congenital Heart Diseases

                    Dr. Grajo and Dr. Belmonte

Oct. 18-22 : Hypertension and Congestive Heart Failure

                    Dr. R. Samia

Jan.31 Feb. 4 : Pulmonary Surfactant, Hyaline Membrane Disease

                         and Effects on Pulmonary Function.

                         Dr. Angelo, Dr. Carretero, Dr. Romualdez

Feb.14-18 : Acid-Base and Fluid Electrolytes Physiology and

                   Clinical Correlates – Dr. Assidao, Dr. Serrano, and

                   Dr. Quehada and Dr. Sengco.

Feb. 21-25 : Rheumatic Heart Disease- Dr. Paje Villar, Dr. Abundo

                    Dr. Pantangco

Feb.28-Mar.4 : Coronary Heart Disease- Dr. Serrano,

                         Dr. Katigbak, and Dr. Sin

Mar. 14-Mar. 18 : Concentration and Dilution of Urine, its

                              Physio-Pathology, Dr. Cabatit

Mar. 28-Apr : Diabetes Mallitus- Dr. Cabatit, Dr. Cinco

 

 

     Foreigners from the different parts of the world started to appear in medical school. In 1964, three Spaniards came in. In 1966 and 1967 there were 1 American, 1 Ghanian, and Thailanders in our 1st year Medical group. In 1967-1968, there were 9 foreigners admitted out of 138 applicants. In 1968-1969, there were5 foreigners admitted, while in 1969-1970 another 5 were allowed to enter.

 

     In 1969, Dr. Telesforo J. Mendoza retired from the Department at the age of 67, after 38 years of devoted service to the Department and UST in general.

 

     When Dr. Buenaventura U.V. Angtuaco became the 10th Dean of Medicine, he forthwith endeavored to implement the upgrading of the curriculum, aiming at total innovations, not mere fragmentary experimentation, instituting a multiplicity of changes. For the Department of Anatomy particularly, there were drastic changes, thus, Embryology was removed as a separate subject or section and instead became a mere subsidiary topic for Gross Anatomy after existing as a separate subject for 81 years. This was done in order not to concentrate on pure Embryology as a discipline but as tool by which comprehension maybe had for anomalies of structure and function encountered in Gross Anatomy studies. This was in keeping with the realization that there was this urgent need to combat the old restrictive curriculum that “precluded expansion in breadth and intensification in depth”(Aquino). Medical genetics was introduced and given greater emphasis than mere Embryology in keeping with the demand of the times. Dr. Petrona Domingo-Noblejas who was not sent to the USA as AID grantee precisely specialized for this subject. Upon her return, she took charge of this subject. In 1967-1968 Dr. Angeles was granted a two month training on Family Planning. Histology was brought up to the Ultramicroscopic stage with Dr. Consuelo Cabral assuming the chief hood of the section. In Gross Anatomy, Dr. Benedicto Rivera (the present Secretary of the Faculty of Medicine) instituted pre-dissected specimens as teaching aids. The subject matters of the Department of Anatomy were revamp after the Dean consulted every staff members and passed out questionnaires on suggested renovations on which report a study was made and out of which concrete plans were laid, and implemented in short order. Thus the Department in totality was geared to the evolvement of the “Basic Physician” (In contradistinction to the “Basic M.D.). And by “Basic Physician” was understood as one educated in methodology and principles of Medicine and provided with background essential for taking up post-graduate training into any specialty, a physician conscious of and responsive to the health and medical needs of the Filipino people, consonant with the state of development of Philippine Society and a Physician aware of the moral implications of the practice of Medicine in accordance with the teaching s Roman Catholicism. The lectures now became generally correlative with clinical aspects, not more functional, geared to exposing the fledgling “medicos” and “clinical” suddenly disappeared.

 

     To insure the maximum effectively to all the plans for renovations, Dr. Angtuaco imposed a more rigid screening of those desiring to enter our medical curriculum. They had to take an MCAT examination (Medical College Admission Test) given by the Philippine Psychological Society as required by law, then they had to hurdle a written examination given by the Dean’s office aside from the Physical examination and personal interviews with at least three assigned faculty members. The entrance examination covered an I.Q. component, a language ability test and a science component which tested on the knowledge of biozoology, chemistry, mathematics and physics.

 

     When Dr. William Barlett y Medina became the 11th head of the Department (actually the 2nd “chairman”). I was appointed Secretary of the Department, and we forthwith established an “Anatomical Museum” starting with entogenetic materials as the nucleus and expanding it with models, dissected specimens , projection slides and charts. In the Histology section, as well as Neuro-anatomy and Gross Anatomy, the emphasis became audio-visual under Dr. Barlett’s preddings, with the functional and clinical aspects correlated with the other disciplines. Now and then guest lecturers were invited to a discuss clinical aspects during regular lecture series, not simply in special seminars. The students were encouraged to get involved in all phases of the educational effort in dialogues and the “feedback system of instruction” as well as the simulation role. To facilitate instruction in keeping with the up-dated techniques, the Department has developed the following teaching aids in addition to those acquired from the AID (American International Development), thus:

 

 

For Gross Anatomy: 1,098 projection slides of which 160 were

                                  Received from the AID, the rest developed

                                  by the Deapartment. Also 41 Anatomical

                                  models.

For Neuro Anatomy: 701 projections slides of which 624 were

                                   Received from the AID and the rest de-

                                   Veloped locally. Also 9 assorted models.

For Histology:           492 projections slides of which 216 came

                                   From the AID and the rest developed by

                                   Department technicians, aside from

                                   19,658 microscopic slides varied tissues

                                   (Every students is provided with a set of

                                   78 slides during the course). Also Anato-

                                   mical models and boxes of diverse slides.

For Embryology:       1,202 projections slides. The Department has

                                   108 microscopes for Neuro-Anatomy and

                                   Embryology and 103 microscopes for

                                   Histology or a total of 211 microscopes.

                                   Aside from numerous charts and other

                                   Accessories.

     It is a facet we must consider that mere accumulation of teaching aid is no indication of implementation of educational objectives. And we believe that matters most is the professor’s “brain” itself his technic, his “know-how”, his experience and training over and above teaching aids, yet they are of some value for they are some form of tools to the medical educator. We fully agree with Rev. Father Sanz O.P. in his quoted statement thus “the use of classroom techniques without thought of the ends involved is pseudo-education of the worst type”. We recognize that there can be an abuse in the use of teaching aids or the lack of appreciation of the proper criteria for its use.